Professor Raymond is a visual perception/cognition specialist with a wide range of interests in how humans use and respond to complex visual information. She conducted the seminal work on the “Attention Blink”, a finding that launched intensive interest in labs around the world on how selective attention operates over time. Her work has included studies on visual attention across time and space; emotional/social responses to visual information, and more recently, learning and its effects on attention and working memory. Other work explores the effects of inflammation on cognition, perception of authenticity in consumer goods, attention in teenagers, and how cognition changes across the lifespa. As Director of the Visual Experience Laboratory, she uses a range of approaches with a primary emphasis on behavioural and electrophysiological techniques. She has a long-standing interest and track record in the application of this knowledge to the consumer goods industry (advertising and packaging), trademark disputes, and counterfeit issues. She also maintains an active interest in the Psychology of Art.

Canadian born, Professor Raymond began her post grad work at the University of Washington in the visual psychophysics of lightness perception. Her PhD work (funded by NSERC Canada) focused on visual disorders in patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Her post-doctoral research (funded by the MRC Canada) investigated oculomotor function and visual-vestibular interactions in normal and abnormal populations. Returning to Canada, she progressed from Assistant Professor to Full Professor at the University of Calgary where her research focused on visual attention and visual motion perception. She then moved to the UK, taking up a professorial post at Bangor University in 2000. There, she developed her applied interests and focused on linking emotional, social and attention processes in the visual system. She took up her Chair in Visual Cognition at the University of Birmingham in 2012 where she directs the Visual Experience Laboratory.

Research conducted by Professor Raymond in the Visual Experience Lab is directed at understanding how exposure to visual stimuli changes the way we respond at perceptual, cognitive and emotional levels to subsequent information. Our group want to know how experience with visual information changes the way the brain works. This general question underlies our work that specifically asks: 

  • How does social emotional information in a visual scene or object (including faces) alter how we process that information or related information for future use? This probably affects memory and the subsequent allocation of attention. (E.g., We discovered that when faces are angry, we remember them better than if they are happy or neutral in expression.) We use behavioural and ERP measures to address these types of questions. We are interested in how healthy people from a wide range of ages (from teens to the elderly) respond. We are also interested in how personality factors related to social empathy and autism-like traits correlate with measures in these types of experiments.

  • How does learning that visual stimuli predict good or bad events change the way we see those stimuli? An effect of learning on visual processing might explain why people are very good at discriminating exemplars of things they really like and not at things they don’t like even though they may encounter them everyday. (E.g., we discovered that objects that are reliable predictors of winning money are processed faster than other equally familiar objects.) We use behavioural and ERP measures to address these types of questions. We are especially interested in how personality factors related to reward sensitivity, risk taking, and impulsivity correlate with measures in these types of experiments.

  • How does visual experience with stimuli affect the way the selective attention system and the motivational system respond to them in other contexts? This might help us understand how people often inappropriately focus on irrelevant images of things they really like or are afraid of, even when driving or doing important and attention-demanding tasks. We want to know how these types of stimuli can also create cravings that lead to unhealthy behavior. (E.g., we discovered that “lucky” stimuli but not “unlucky” or neutral stimuli can be noticed and remembered when people are engaged in a demanding cognitive task). As in all our work, we use behavioural and EEG measures in these experiments.



Thomas, P., FitzGibbon, L., and Raymond, J. E.  (2016). Value conditioning modulates visual working memory processes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 42(1), 6-10.

Sawaki, R., Luck, S. & Raymond, J. E. (2015). How attention changes in response to incentives. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience,  27(11), 2229-2239.

Painter, D., Kritikos, A. & Raymond, J. E. (2014). Value learning modulates goal-directed actions. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67(6), 1166-1175.

Thomas, P. Jackson, M. & Raymond, J. E. (2014). A threatening face in the crowd: Effects of emotional singletons on visual working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40(1) Febuary, 253-263. doi: 10.1037/a0033970

Jackson, M. Linden, D. & Raymond, J.E. (2013). Angry expressions strengthen the encoding and maintenance of face identity representations in visual working memory. Cognition & Emotion, 28 (2) 278-297http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02699931.2013.816655

Jackson, M. Linden, D. & Raymond, J.E. (2012). “Distracters” do not always distract: Visual working memory for angry faces is enhanced by incidental emotional words. Front. Psychology 3:437. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00437

Gupta, R & Raymond, J. E. (2012). Emotional distraction unbalances visual processing. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19(2), 184-189.

O’Brien, J. & Raymond, J. E. (2012). Learned predictiveness speeds visual processing. Psychological Science, 23(4), 359 – 363.

Gomez-Cuerva, J. & Raymond, J.E. (2011). Perception of facial expression depends on prior attention. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18 (6), 1057-1063.

Doallo, S, Raymond, J. E, Shapiro, K. L., Kiss, M., Eimer, M., Nobre, S. C. (2011). Response inhibition results in the emotional devaluation of faces: neural correlates as revealed by fMRI. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7, 649-659.

Rutherford, H. J. V., O’Brien, J.L. & Raymond, J. E. (2010). Value associations of irrelevant stimuli modify rapid visual orienting. Psychological Bulletin & Review, 17 (4), 536-542.

Rutherford, H. J. V. & Raymond, J. E. (2010). Effect of spatial cues on locating emotional targets. Visual Cognition, 18(3) 389-412.

Raymond J. E. & O’Brien, J. L. (2009). Selective visual attention and motivation: The consequences of value learning in an attentional blink task. Psychological Science, 20 (8), 981-988.

Goolsby B., Shapiro, K.L. & Raymond, J. E. (2009). Distractor devaluation requires visual working memory. Psychonomics Bulletin & Review, 16(1), 133-138.

Jackson, M. C., Wu, C-Y., Linden, D. E. J., & Raymond, J. E. (2009). Enhanced visual short-term memory for angry faces. J Exp Psychol: Human Perception and Performance, 35(2), 363-374.

Jackson, M. C. & Raymond, J. E. (2008). Familiarity enhances visual working memory for faces. J Exp Psychol: Human Perception and Performance, 34 (3), 556-568.



j.raymond [at] bham.ac.uk

School of Psychology
University of Birmingham
B15 2TT